# Statistical Methods in Psychology

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The paper is a Proposal describing an experiment students will plan. It should include:

1) The Problem, which describes the issue being studied.
2) The Hypothesis, an educated guess about the cause of an effect of interest.

a) The hypothesis wording describes:
(1)The null hypothesis, which claims there is no effect.
(2) The alternative hypothesis, which claims there is an effect.

(Both forms of the hypotheses are described as two or more conditions being compared: the treated experimental and untreated control groups.)

b) Describe both variables in a measureable way.
(1) Independent Variable-the presumed cause is manipulated.
(2) Dependent Variable-the outcome characteristic scale.

c) Statistical Notation stating the measure being compared across the research conditions for both forms of the hypothesis should be depicted.

3) The Subjects being tested are described in terms of randomness and diversity.
Include the number of groups and the number of subjects in each group.

4) The Apparatus used or any supplies needed should be described. This includes all machines or documents used in the study.

5) The Procedure used to manipulate group status should be described so that the treatment of all conditions is clear to the reader.

6) The Statistic used to determine the likelihood of each outcome should be
Named. Omitting a test statistic is a major omission in a statistics paper. Without it, the paper is essentially incomplete. State which test statistic (One of the Zs, Ts or Fs). Be sure to specify the form of that test statistic as well. Which type of Z, or T, or F should be identified.

DO NOT USE THE INDEPENDENT T TEST NOR PEARSON’S R.

7) The Results anticipated should be described in terms of the hypotheses. These results are hypothetical as no real subjects will be run.

8) The Conclusions drawn and named by choosing one of two possible statistical
Decisions. Either reject the null or fail-to-reject the null hypothesis.
These two are the only choices and must be stated that way.

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