Scientific Revolution

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Scientific Revolution 16th & 17the Centuries

Science

Theory +Observation+Quantification =Law

Scientific Revolution, Astonomy

Previous: Ptolemaic Universe

Theory: Nicolau Copernicus (1473-1543), Proposed an earth-centered astronomical model

Professor of Astronomy and Astrology at the University of Cracow

Canon of Frombork cathedral

Employed by pope for 1514 Lateran Council Calendar Reform

Writings:

Commentariolus

          On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)

Observation: Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) Patronage of King of Denmark 1572            1572 discovered nova, 1577 comet

tables of planetary motion

Estate of island of HVEN

Imperial astronomer at Prague

Assisted by Johannes Kepler

Quantification: Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

German mathetician and astrologer

Laws of Planetary Motion

Elliptical Movement

Confirmation: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Confirmation

Developed experimental science

Improved the Telescope

           1610 Starry Messenger (Siderius Nuncius)

Four Moons of Jupiter, proved movement

Besides Moons of Jupiter he discovered

Phases of Venus

Falling Bodies

Sunspots

1615 Letter to Christina of Tuscany

1633 Dialogue Between the Two Chief World Systems

Salviati (Copernican); Sagredo (neutral)Simplicio      (Simplicius, follower of Aristotle,      Ptolemaic)

Galileo’s 4 Trips to Rome

1616 – Treatise of the Tides, Bellarmine’s Letter

1624 – Meetings with Pope Urban (Barberini)

1630 – Licensing Dialogue

1633 – Trial

Trial Verdict

Galileo was found “vehemently suspect of heresy,”

He was required to “abjure, curse, and detest” those opinions.

He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest.

His offending Dialogue was banned

Dialogue remained on Index of Prohibited Books until 1757

1992 Pope John Paul acknowledged the Church’s error in its treatment of Galileo

Science Enthroned

Lyncean Academy 1603

Academie des Sciences 1666

English Royal Society 1662

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

Laws of Motion Force=Gravity

  1. Objects at rest remain in such a state unless acted on by force
  2. Changes in Motion proportional to force
  3. Every action has an equal and opposite reaction 

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