Managing Financial Resources and Decisions

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• Aim

The unit aim is to provide learners with an understanding of where and how to access sources of
finance for a business, and the skills to use financial information for decision making.

• Unit abstract

This unit is designed to give learners a broad understanding of the sources and availability of
finance for a business organisation. Learners will learn how to evaluate these different sources
and compare how they are used.

They will learn how financial information is recorded and how to use this information to make
decisions for example in planning and budgeting.

Decisions relating to pricing and investment appraisal are also considered within the unit.
Finally, learners will learn and apply techniques used to evaluate financial performance.

• Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this unit a learner will:

1    Understand the sources of finance available to a business

2    Understand the implications of finance as a resource within a business

3    Be able to make financial decisions based on financial information

4    Be able to evaluate the financial performance of a business.

UNIT 2: MANAGING FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND DECISIONS

Unit content

1   Understand the sources of finance available to a business

Range of sources: sources for different businesses; long term such as share capital; retained
earnings; loans; third-party investment; short/medium term such as hire purchase and leasing;
working capital stock control; cash management; debtor factoring

Implications of choices: legal, financial and dilution of control implications; bankruptcy

Choosing a source: advantages and disadvantages of different sources; suitability for purpose eg
matching of term of finance to term of project

2     Understand the implications of finance as a resource within a business

Finance costs: tangible costs eg interest, dividends; opportunity costs eg loss of alternative
projects when using retained earnings; tax effects

Financial planning: the need to identify shortages and surpluses eg cash budgeting; implications of
failure to finance adequately; overtrading

Decision making: information needs of different decision makers

Accounting for finance: how different types of finance and their costs appear in the financial
statements of a business; the interaction of assets and liabilities on the balance sheet and on
international equivalents under the International Accounting Standards (IAS)

3   Be able to make financial decisions based on financial information

Budgeting decisions: analysis and monitoring of cash and other budgets

Costing and pricing decisions: calculation of unit costs, use within pricing decisions; sensitivity
analysis

Investment appraisal: payback period; accounting rate of return; discounted cash flow techniques ie
net present value; internal rate of return

Nature of long-term decisions: nature of investment importance of true value of money; cash flow;
assumptions in capital investment decisions; advantages and disadvantages of each method

UNIT 2: MANAGING FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND DECISIONS

4   Be able to evaluate the financial performance of a business

Terminology: introduction to debit, credit, books of prime entry, accounts and ledgers, trial
balance, final accounts and international equivalents under the International Accounting Standards
(IAS)

Financial statements: basic form, structure and purpose of main financial statements ie balance
sheet, profit and loss account, cash flow statement, notes, preparation not required; changes to
reporting requirements under the International Accounting Standards (IAS) eg statement of
comprehensive income, statement of financial position; distinctions between different types of
business ie limited company, partnership, sole trader

Interpretation: use of key accounting ratios for profitability, liquidity, efficiency and
investment; comparison both external ie other companies, industry standards and internal ie
previous periods, budgets

UNIT 2: MANAGING FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND DECISIONS
Assessment criteria for pas
On successful completion of this unit a learner will:

LO1 Understand the sources of finance available to a business

LO2 Understand the implications of finance as a resource within a business

LO3 Be able to make financial decisions based on financial information

LO4 Be able to evaluate the financial performance of a business

The learner can:

1.1   identify the sources of finance available to a business

1.2  assess the implications of the different sources

1.3 evaluate appropriate sources of finance for a business project

2.1  analyse the costs of different sources of finance

2.2  explain the importance of financial planning

2.3  assess the information needs of different decision makers

2.4  explain the impact of finance on the financial statements

3.1   analyse budgets and make appropriate decisions

3.2  explain the calculation of unit costs and make pricing decisions using relevant information

3.3  assess the viability of a project using investment appraisal techniques

4.1 discuss the main financial statements

4.2  compare appropriate formats of financial statements for different types of business

4.3  interpret financial statements using appropriate ratios and comparisons, both internal and
external.

UNIT 2: MANAGING FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND DECISIONS

Links

This unit links with the following units within this specification Unit 6: Business Decision
Making, Unit 9: Management Accounting: Costing and Budgeting, Unit 10: Financial Accounting and
Reporting, Unit 11: Financial Systems and Auditing and Unit 12: Taxation.

This unit also covers some of the underpinning knowledge and understanding for the NVQ in
Accounting as set out in Annexe B.

The unit covers financial topics essential for learners who would like a career in this field and
wish to gain membership of a professional accounting body.

Essential requirements

Learners will require access to financial and company reports.

Employer engagement and vocational contexts

Centres should develop links with local businesses. Many businesses and chambers of  commerce want
to promote local business and are often willing to provide work placements, visit opportunities,
information about businesses and the local business context and guest speakers.

www.businessbritainuk.co.uk    provides information about business in Britain and has extensive
links to other business and business news sites.

www.fsb.org.uk                        The Federation of Small Businesses provides information,
support and guidance about small businesses in the UK.

 

 

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